P2 – Differentiated Instruction

P2 – Practice differentiated instruction. This means that teachers use a variety of instructional strategies or personalized instruction to help students acquire knowledge. Teachers will create opportunities for students to learn the same standards in different forms or with small modifications to fit the students’ needs.

The evidence is a series of mini-lessons presented over three days of instruction as outlined by a previous blog post found here. (LINK TO OTHER POST CLICK HERE) This post also includes some background information about the project, goals and outcomes. These lessons used student activities to help students to learn about and become familiar with vertical asymptotes, horizontal asymptotes, x- and y-intercepts and holes in a graph. Rather than providing students with direct instruction, the activities are built to facilitate student discussion around the topics and the teacher can target students with special learning needs during the activity. Each group was strategically selected to include students who brought different strengths (such as good communicator, critical thinkers in a single group). Group roles were assigned to draw out strengths or compensate for weaknesses of individual groups (quiet students were assigned as readers, critical thinkers assigned to questioner role).

Lessons 1 through 4 use student’s prior knowledge of polynomial functions to build on new understandings. Stations which revolved around asymptotes had students use limits by completing a table of values. For horizontal asymptotes, the values approached infinity and negative infinity. For Vertical asymptotes, the values approached a fixed value of x. Structuring groups with specific roles, students were able to converse and think critically about each of the four topics. Since the conversations were NOT teacher lead, students could explain to each other concepts they were unsure of. Most importantly, I would circulate the room during the activity to check on students progress and assess needs or misunderstandings with groups of about 4 students. I would target groups that were working fast to ensure they understood the intricacies of the activity and would provide challenge or extending information to groups who were able to build on more complex ideas.

After completing this activity, I learned that station learning can be valuable but should be thought through carefully. I would reconsider several processes to make this better.

  1. Allow more time for students to complete the activities. Some groups seemed rushed and were not able to complete ideas.
  2. Debrief with groups after each activity to ensure students understood the purpose of each question.
  3. Provide a little bit of direct instruction before turning to station learning activity to motivate the learning more.
  4. Remove the unit about holes since it is not a standard, but a good to know topic.
  5. I would remove the idea of making the students physically move around the room during the activity, this wasted time.

There are some pieces of learning that I thought were beneficial to the activity.

  1. Assigning students to groups to ensure there are a variety of learners in each group of learning.
  2. Assigning group roles to draw out strengths of students to benefit others in the group.
  3. Circulating the room to provide direct instruction as needed rather than lecturing at the front of the room. The dynamic of a teacher roaming helps students by providing small group instruction AND if the teacher is unavailable, groups must work together to problem solve before asking for assistance and receiving help. The delayed gratification is more effective because students are more receptive to the learning (Meyer, 2010).

While many of the suggestions above would help students learn and are keys to improving the instruction better for next time, I can continue to improve by learning and practicing differentiated instruction and providing alternate means of learning to students when station activities are not being used, such as times when direct instruction is used more. There is more research and practice that can be learned.

References: Meyer, D. (Speaker) (2010, March 1). Math class needs a makeover. TEDxNYED. Lecture conducted from TED Conferences, LLC, New York City.


Northwest Mathematics Conference (NWMC) 2014

The Northwest Mathematics Conference (NWMC) is a gathering of educational professionals who teach math or provide assistance to math instructors. The purpose if for attendees to gain valuable knowledge around how to teach and learn the latest and greatest instructional tools for math classrooms. All grades and topics were covered, some general educational techniques and others were specific to integrating Common Cores State Standards (CCSS) or other instructional tools into the classroom.


Day 1 – Friday

NWMC Day 1

The linked document are the notes I took on day one of the math conference. These only include a little bit about the sessions and workshops I personally attended, however I obtained many resources throughout the conference and this document include many many references to learning tools.

I will copy the session/workshop title and description and follow up with a few vital learning points.

Marc Garneau & Chris Hunter
(Education Services, Surrey School District — piman314g@gmail.com)

I See It: The Power of Visualization

IMG_0918What does it mean to “see” the math? We’ll explore tasks that can engage students to reason and make sense of mathematical concepts through visual representations. The nature of these tasks will include concrete patterning, dynamic
graphing, geometric representation, and more.

The session with Mark and Chris taught us about visualization of mathematical concepts, this followed the Dan Meyer’s model for presenting information and creating debate. One of the most interesting pieces of their workshop was the visualization of square roots. Investigating the fundamental ideas behind square roots would help students understand how to simplify square roots. Squares have the same length on each side and a square root is the length of one side of the square. Participants were provided with a packet of multiple activities that helped students visualize math concepts.


Amy Utecht
(Franklin Pierce High School — autecht@fpschools.org)

Algebra Interactive Notebooks

Come discover the world of Interactive Notebooks. I spent the last year researching and creating interactive notebooks to use with my algebra students. These notebooks include notes, foldables, examples, and journaling. I will share resources that I discovered and we will create several pages that were highly effective with my students.

Amy’s presentation of her Interactive Student Notebooks (ISN) was the highlight of today’s workshops. She provided examples of how she supplemented her school’s textbook with activities to engage students and provide an organization to class notes. Students participated in classroom activities and pasted Foldable’s, worksheets and investigations into her notebook. The students essentially create their own textbook by participating in class every day. The conversation in this workshop provided several ideas for how to manage classroom activities for students who miss class or choose not to participate in activities. Interactive notebooks replicate a scrapbook for algebra learning, although the tools could be applied to any subject area. We ended by creating about three Foldables to reinforce topics in a classroom. Amy says she uses the following blogs most frequently:

IMG_0122 IMG_0914 IMG_0121 IMG_0913 IMG_0915IMG_0119 IMG_0120

Debra Schneider & Alyssa Engle
(Evergreen Public Schools — 1500 SE Blairmont Ave Vancouver WA 98683)

A Free Common Core Aligned Algebra 1 Curriculum

A consortium of school districts in Southwest Washington have design a curriculum aligned to the Common Core content and practice standards. We have rich tasks, fluency practice, formative and summative assessment, and professional development modules.

Debra is a curriculum developer in Vancouver who received a grant to develop a curriculum around the common core for Algebra 1, Algebra 2 and Geometry. These are field tested activities and are FREE for any teacher to use. They obtained an open license to allow teachers to use the information for their classroom without additional credit. They have Algebra 1 published this year, next year they will publish Algebra 2 and later Geometry. This is a cool resource which focuses on BIG IDEAS for students and teachers.

This is a link to the free Algebra 1 curriculum and all related materials, there are a lot of very well developed activities on the site. http://swwmathematics.pbworks.com/


Dan Meyer
(Doctoral Candidate, Stanford University — dan@mrmeyer.com>)

Better Than Engagement

We try to engage students with math games, math rap, real world math problems, and promises of jobs later in life, but that engagement is often short-lived. The presenter will introduce Guershon’s Harel concept of “intellectual need” – a place where students need new math learning – and ground it with practical strategies.

Dan is an educational profession who is teaching teachers to remove the “Real World” from the classroom because it doesn’t work. He claims that students will better understand the idea if we turn the dial down in education and ask very fundamental questions on a basic level. This is a unique way of thinking and is highly inquiry based which leads students to valuable discussions. I took some notes on his lecture although he is famous in the math community for his TED talk which emphasizes a very similar message as his lecture at NWMC 2014. (http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_meyer_math_curriculum_makeover?language=en)


Day 2 – Saturday

NWMC Day 2

Again, the attached document if for day two of the conference and note I took during the conference. There are a lot of pictures in the document above. These sessions mostly had more visual elements to them. Again, I will comment on each session for important points and provide resources.


Nancy Wisker
(Dinah Zike Academy — nancy@dinah.com)

ScafFolding Interactive Math Journals via Notebook Foldables®

In this fast-paced session discover how to transform basic classroom materials and scafFOLD your math instruction using 3- D graphic organizers known as Notebook Foldables®. See the possibilities unFOLD and depart with a mini composition book filled with immediately usable ideas.

This course taught teachers several visual aid and organization strategies to build concepts for an interactive notebook. Foldable’s can be independent of a notebook page or can be pasted in. Some of the topics were elementary and were silly for high school students, but other tools could be easily adapted for any classroom or topic.


Katie Akesson
(Cavelero Mid High School — katie_akesson@lkstevens.wednet.edu)

Implement Standards Based Grading into your grading NOW – Including CCSS!

Have you heard about standards based grading and are now ready to do it? This workshop will provide easy, practical strategies to implement standards based grading into your grade-book starting now – even include CCSS.

Standards based grading is important for showing students where they are struggling and where they are excelling. Providing an area in the grade book is important to show parents which areas to work on. Additionally, this talk provided some ideas for classroom management. Katie teaching in a school district where students need to receive feedback on their homework, however the problem with collecting, grading and redistributing papers is a tedious effort on the part of the teacher. Students complete homework as requested and earn a daily score, homework complete (1 pt) or homework not complete (o pts.). At the end of a 1.5 week period, the class has a quiz on a characteristic homework problem. At this time, Katie collects homework packets from the past week and grades a the homework quiz and homework problems. The students may use homework notes on this quiz.

The primary focus of the talk was standards based grading. Katie shared her approach and grading scale for students for tests, quizzes and projects. Students can earn up to 55% by making an effort. Providing student points for effort encourages work, but does not deteriorate their grade to the point of no return. Students can revive themselves from a bombed test or misunderstanding. Incorrect thinking still results in a non passing score, but they still have a chance at learning the information and encourages continued effort.

Another take away from this talk was the style of grading for tests. Each test contains several standards, a grade is assigned to each standard and that is placed into the grade book. For one test, there may be up to four grades. For example, the grade book may read Chapter 4 Test: Solve Equations, Chapter 4 Test: transformation equations and so on. This allows students and parents to really focus in on problem areas.


Tom Reardon
(Fitch HIgh School / Youngstown State University — tom@tomeardon.com www.TomReardon.com)

The Great Applied Problem and Several Other Outstanding Individualized Assessment Activities

Creatively implement these exceptional activities into your classroom – Geometry through Calculus. Discover how to create individualized problems – unique to each student – and how to create individualized answer keys including all intermediate answers to easily assess these individualized problems.

This lecture was provided to help teachers provide challenging problems, primarily focused on the higher level math classes such as precalculus and calculus to create individualized problems. The secret, a spreadsheet with the answers. While Tom grades based on correctness of each step along the way, each problem should be displayed as an organized piece of work. Tom also talked about classroom strategies when presenting these challenging problems to his classes. He allows students to work together and carefully watches as students work to problem solve. He takes a hands off approach and lets the students figure out the problems.

He provided resources for us to use in our classroom through his dropbox.



Overall the math conference was excellent, I learned about many application tools which aligned with my university learning. I would highly recommend professionals to attend this event to learn about what other teachers are doing in their classrooms. After many sessions I walked away with great excitement about how I could implement this in my classroom, even adjust the procedures of the classroom for my internship to help students needs. I would have liked to see more research being contributed to some of the lectures (such as Dan Meyer’s Lecture) however I think many of the presenters at this conference were genuine in their interest to help students and improve other’s pedagogy for teaching math.

Big takeaways:
  1. Interactive Student Notebooks, similar to what we do in class, but modified to provide more structure. Essentially creating student created textbooks in a journal.
  2. Dan Meyer presented about introducing mathematical concept in an engaging way that doesn’t necessarily have application, but makes students think about an interesting question. This provided some resources for unmotivated students who don’t typically engage in classroom activities alone.
  3. Standards based grading, breaking down assessments and assignments into chunks of what we want students to understand and enter these into the grade book separately. This allows students and parents to clearly see which concepts the student is struggling to understand. So when Student A gets a 75% on a test, he may have gotten 100% on combining like terms questions, but 60% on factoring trinomials.
  4. Graphic organizers for less organized students or students who are more into art. One class structure is to teach organizational tools and study tools to students who need them.

A Day in the Life of a Student

Today’s goal was to follow the school day of a sophomore student throughout their day. To protect the identity of this student they will be called MW. The goal was for me to observe five different classrooms during a six period day. Within each class, I was looking for teaching strategies and tools to use in my own classroom. At the end of the day, I asked MW some questions about their day. While the student interview was only a case study, MW provides several helpful suggestions to improve their learning experience.

The morning classes include Math, English and Biology. Within all of these classes, I noticed good responsive listening. Teachers would ask student questions and then summarize what the student said and repeated the comment to the class so all could hear. In English, the instructor was careful about making smaller comments to encourage conversation in class. The activity in English was to analyze a short story, a topic which can be shallow or deep depending on the students’ understanding. The instructor contributed to the classroom discussion as well to prompt students to analyze the short story more deeply. At the end of the classroom discussion, the teacher make a more sophisticated analysis than the students were able. This exposed the students to higher expectations. The teacher used OneNote to distribute materials to students and students were able to access copies of the teachers journal.

In math class, students started with an entry task to summarize their homework and clarify questions. The class activity was to debrief a challenging problem from the homework and clarify understanding of the basic elements of trigonometric ratios. Students had questions to prepare for a quiz the next day. The activity included a worksheet where students needed to use prior work to plot data and discover a relationship of a sine wave. The end of class, summarized their understanding of “accuracy” and careful procedures for getting more reliable results.

Biology was a very busy class, the lesson was very engaging and highly differentiated. One comment about the lesson that I particularly enjoyed was the presentation of the entry task. The day’s objective was clearly posted on the board and students were able download a copy of class activities from OneNote. Student’s shared out the Initial Thinking questions by popcorn method, students would choose others to “keep the conversation going.” The instructor was clear about the importance of understanding the Carbon Cycle and other biological systems and stated that this would be tested on the End of Course Assessment (EOC). The class activities included a dice game and students would mimic a carbon molecule in the journey throughout the day. Students seemed to enjoy the activity and learned about the many processes of the carbon cycle. Students were able to articulate what happens to a carbon atom as it moves from the sun to plants and then into animals and back into the atmosphere. The activity was followed by a debrief so students could articulate their learning. After the debrief, students watched a video that repeated the material again. This instructor was very smart about providing many learning opportunities for important content. The class ended with an exit slip that informally assessed students learning from the day. Students were instructed to make a carbon cycle as homework to use to prepare for their EOC test in the spring.

After lunch, MW was schedules to attend Current World Problems, Spanish and Health. Mostly, this class period was work time for students to finish a group project about government systems since 1500. MW shared with me the group project and the required elements for a grade. Before work began, students the teacher had a student present a “SHIELD” which allowed the student to comment about their past present and future. The intention of the exercise if for the class to know each other better. Students can share about their interests and goals. Next the teacher gave instructions of work time, he was very clear about presenting a product at the end of the period and made suggestions for groups to produce exemplary work (i.e. Review each other’s papers, get organized and then work together to produce a product). Essentially, the teacher anticipated potential shortcomings and took preventative measures to work through the project. We also talked about some of the functionalities of the grading system to optimise its use.

Next was Spanish in which students entered the class and listened to the instructor through an immersion lecture. The teacher spoke little english when teaching the material, but frequently broke into english to emphasize important points. He continued to discuss why immersion was used and why he believed in this philosophy for language acquisition. Most of this period was direct instruction and lecture based. Students did not respond frequently and when they did, it was brief.

The last class was Health where there was a lot of individual work time. Some of the lesson was direct instruction where students had access to a OneNote document to help follow the lesson and take notes. The period was an introduction to nutrition and involved the explanation of a project. The teacher clearly displayed the objective and the required elements of the project so that students knew what was expected of them throughout the unit. Many students who were in previous classes were also in this class. It was interesting to note the difference in classroom dynamic because of these students. Those who were quiet in the morning, we not more rambunctious and hard to get back on task. Teachers should consider this when teaching.

Finally, after the day, I asked MW some questions about their day. This student liked the biology lesson because there was an activity where she could move. She mentioned this was uncharacteristic of her typical day, but when she moves around, she claims she remembers more. Typically, she enjoys her math class because there are clear instructions and she tends to work hard. MW is also in a robotics class (which I did not attend) but this takes up a lot of her time. Sometimes teachers don’t understand that this is a challenging workload. Along these lines, MW claims that she becomes overwhelmed when projects are overlapping and she does not have the tools to manage this better. MW recommended teaching students in advisory time management and note taking skills. She also would like a space after school to get some work done and manage her schedule. Throughout the day following the student, I realized that the school has very high expectations for the students and teachers don’t often repeat information. This school expects students to understand verbal instructions the first time, which is a challenging skill for many people, even adults.

Introduction to Teaching Course Reflection

Discussion Post Entry: Education Reform

Discussion Post Entry: Education Reform

E1 – Exemplify professionally-informed, growth centered practice. This means that teachers have demonstrated an understanding of current educational and suggest strategies for improvement. The attached screenshot shows an assigned discussion post about recent reform in public education. Hunt (2005) discusses the problems with previous reform, (i.e. career education reform), as being over ambitious and under studied, claiming that reformists fail to anticipate long term affects when solving short term problems. My discussion post agrees that many reforms do not meet the needs and there is some concern for the Common Core State Standards as they approach full implementation. I suggest differentiated teaching as a potential solution to work around the many reform systems implemented in classrooms. This relates to the program standard E1 because teachers who are educated about policy reform can adjust their classrooms to best fit student needs while accommodating reform policies.

Since writing this discussion post, I have learned specific research based strategies for improving classroom instruction such as scaffolding lessons and teaching just above student understanding to maximize learning. From reading articles about education reform, I have learned how implemented systems intended to help the educational process are often challenged and rejected because of cost. An example of this was a class discussion of suggestions from “A Nation at Risk” where longer class days were suggested by researchers, but rejected by politicians because of costs.

Students have always been impacted by school reform. In the discussion post, I talk about my experience of the WASL throughout my middle and high school education and how I felt about standardized test reform. Hunt (2005) makes a strong argument in his article about how students change because of reform. One danger of the current standards based education is that low motivation students tend to complete the bare minimum to pass. On the other hand, the standards require generally require more rigorous understanding to meet expectations ultimately raising the level of general education. To improve my teaching and grow as an effective educator, I am pursuing professional development opportunities after earning my teaching credentials geared towards improving math and science teachers and retaining highly qualified educators in high schools. By becoming more engaged with my own professional development, I can collaborate resources with other educators to research and improve teaching to more positively impact student learning during immanent educational reform.


Hunt, T. C. (September 2005). History of Reforms: Education Reforms: Lessons from History. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(1): 84-89.

Learners in Context Post-Course Meta-Reflection

[1] The Learners in Context course focused on two principals of HOPE, E1 — Exemplify professionally-informed, growth-centered practice and H1 — Honor student diversity and development. The standard E1 means that teachers are adopting best professional practices based on research and tested to maximize student learning. The H1 standard means that teachers are able to recognize that students are different and have very unique needs. Taking these differences into account, teachers are strategically thinking about their practices to improve student development.

[3] During the course I learned about the importance of exploration for students during their learning process. Medina (2008) talks about his learning growing up and his mother’s willingness to adapt to Medina’s changing needs as he explored his interests. Teachers must show willingness to adapt to students interests and work to encourage learning, not inhibit exploration through standardized testing. [2] Jamie Gephart is a student in our class and responded to a discussion post about incorporating exploration into learning while recognizing the requirement of testing, she writes

I had a teacher in high school that referred to his tests as a “celebration of knowledge”.  I know that may sound cheesy, but this subtle twist helped to relieve some of the pressure.  And in reality, shouldn’t this be the purpose of an exam?  Students have worked hard to understand and incorporate this new knowledge.  What if teachers presented exams more like game day, as an opportunity to show off all the hard work and practice they have endured? (Gephart, 2014)

[5] This matches the standard of H1 since it encourages student development through an effective way of allowing exploration and a creative way to test students without hindering natural curiosity. [4] From exploring and engaging in this discussion post, I learned that when students change their frame of reference from the testing frame to the game day frame their anxiety is drastically decreased and students can demonstrate their true knowledge. I have not needed to use these tools because I have been fortunate not to suffer from text anxiety, hover some students are not as fortunate. [6] In my classroom, I will try to frame tests as demonstrations of learning rather than a ritualized practice used to assign grades and create a classroom hierarchy.

Another point of learning from this course was Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and the use of scaffolding to guide students’ learning (Pressley and McCormick, 2007). [1] This aligns with HOPE standard E1 since Vygotsky has conducted significant research on human development and learning. [2] These two pictures from Pressley and McCormick (2007) have been incredibly beneficial to my understanding of the ZPD and how good educators should teach students to maximize learning.

Module 5 did not facilitate much discussion about the ZPD as much as the book or classZone of Proximal Development lectures, however, the concept was impactful. [3] The ZPD is an essential tool for teachers to know where students are located in the curriculum, the process of scaffolding provides an essential tool for teachers to implement and practice providing work to students which is in their ZPD. [4] Prior to this reading, I did not know how to best implement challenging material, Vygotsky’s research has explained the precise level of challenge to present to students. I learned a lot about scaffolding and how to present challenging material and provide a guide to full understanding by providing many resources to students. [5] Students benefit the most when teachers practice these techniques. By scaffolding lessons of Scaffoldingchallenging materials, students receive adequate help and can feel successful in their work while also learning. [6] Practicing using ZPD and scaffolding in my classroom will not be challenging, in fact this will be an essential tool. I will use to explain complex materials, especially during my internship while working with exceptional students and provide support to students where the content falls beyond their ZPD. Finding the balance between too challenging and not challenging enough will take the most amount of practice.


Gephard, Jamie. (2014, July 9). Module 3 Discussion Forum A-G. BlackBoard Discussion Post. (Web).

Medina, J. (2008). Brain rules: 12 principles for surviving and thriving at work, home, and school. Seattle, WA: Pear Press.

Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child and adolescent development for educators. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

M6 Reflection: Social and Cultural Influences

H1 – “To demonstrate a positive impact on student learning, teacher candidates honor student diversity and development.” (Seattle Pacific University). This standard implies that each student has a unique set of personal and developmental differences where teachers can use recent and relevant research to positively impact student learning.

Students, Parents and Stress discussion post

Stress is a relevant and very real part of students lives. The impact of such stress has adverse effects on brain development and learning (Medina, 2008). Educators should use research based strategies to be aware of student stress and learn how to assist students in maximizing learning potential. The following screenshot is taken from a class discussion board which demonstrates my understanding of research showing stressful home live and the impact on student development within the classroom. In this piece of evidence, I discuss how creating an inclusive classroom community can negate some of the harmful effects induced by stress. This is relevant to the H1 program standard since unique home experiences can directly impact student learning and educators should address the effects of developmental challenges students face, even when they are beyond the control of the teacher.

In writing this post and discussing the impact on student experience, I made new connections with the importance of creating a classroom community to help students overcome stress from outside the classroom. When students have a safe classroom environment, even with uncontrollable stress, students can continue to learn and develop in content areas. Awareness of student stress and getting to know students can positively impact student learning. In my classroom, I will create a learner friendly environment to foster learning. Additionally, I will use best practices to engage my students with multi sensory lessons (Medina, 2008). By increasing engagement in learning, no matter the situation, students will learn more (Borich, 2014). Classroom communities and sensory integration in learning all provide opportunities for students to engage in the content and increases learning. There are many other social issues classroom teachers have the opportunity to impact. Using research based strategies to impact the community will positively influence student development.


Borich, G. D. (2014). Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Pearson Education, Inc.

Medina, J. (2008). Brain rules: 12 principles for surviving and thriving at work, home, and school. Seattle, WA: Pear Press.

Seattle Pacific University (n.d.). HOPE Standards. Seattle Pacific University School of Education. (Accessed Aug. 2, 2014).

Characteristics of an Effective Educator

According to the US Census Bureau in 2011, more than 79 million people were enrolled in school between nursery and college, that’s 29.6% of the US population. Since a major portion of the populace is engaged in school related activities, it’s essential to look at the characteristics of the 3.3 million educators who teach students every day.

Particularly for secondary school, effective educators are well versed in their content area. They should have deep background knowledge to challenge the most curious student with engaging material but also the ability to break down challenging concepts into elemental chunks. Mandating attendance means all students are present and educators should know how to make their subject relatable. From experience, engaging presentations, activities and lessons foster growth. This is the result of differentiated teaching, changing styles to keep the classroom experience engaging. Most importantly, effective educators show their students they have faults. Being vulnerable in content knowledge can be an opportunity for a teacher to show their students that they are constantly learning as well. Teacher too often don’t ask for help fearing of being ostracized by students.

Teaching is a daily presentation, effective educators come to work with tenacity (the determination to work with challenging students), patience (to serve students in a healthy learning environment) and flexibility (to face challenging situations with grace). These three dispositions are essential for all educators to find success working with students. With an engaging teaching style targeted at all levels of students, the ability to make mistakes in front of students and strong dispositions, these traits combine to be the characteristics of an effective educator.